Estimating environmental impacts for illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing in the Peruvian EEZ with the combined use of life cycle assessment and automatic identification systems

Illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing poses a threat to society and ecosystems, leading to declining fish populations and the destruction of unprotected marine habitats. A significant portion of IUU activities take place in international waters, where law enforcement is limited, and national authorities have little to no power to intervene. While there are many technological tools available for analyzing the behavior of IUU fishing activities, few scientific studies have focused on analyzing the environmental impacts they generate. Therefore, this research proposes the combined use of Automatic Identification System (AIS) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to estimate the environmental impacts of IUU fishing through real-time or historical vessel tracking. The Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Peru and adjacent international waters have been selected as a case study to demonstrate the advantages of this methodological framework. It is anticipated that this study will be valuable for understanding the behavior and environmental impacts associated with these activities.

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